This volume, it is presumed by the author, gives what will
generally be considered satisfactory evidence, though not all the
evidence, of what the Common Law trial by jury really is. In a
future volume, if it should be called for, it is designed to
corroborate the grounds taken in this; give a concise view of the
English constitution; show the unconstitutional character of the
existing government in England, and the unconstitutional means
by which the trial by jury has been broken down in practice; prove
that, neither in England nor the United States, have legislatures
ever been invested by the people with any authority to impair the
powers, change the oaths, or (with few exceptions) abridge the
jurisdiction, of juries, or select jurors on any other than Common
Law principles; and, consequently, that, in both countries,
legislation is still constitutionally subordinate to the discretion and
consciences of Common Law juries, in all cases, both civil and
criminal, in which juries sit. The same volume will probably also
discuss several political and legal questions, which will naturally
assume importance if the trial by jury should be reestablished.
It is a sin to write this. It is a sin to think words no others
think and to put them down upon a paper no others are to see. It
is base and evil. It is as if we were speaking alone to no ears
but our own. And we know well that there is no transgression
blacker than to do or think alone. We have broken the laws. The
laws say that men may not write unless the Council of Vocations
bid them so. May we be forgiven!
exposition abrégée de divers faits concernants
les boutures et les greffes animales.
observations sur la réproduction des vers
de terre, sur celle des vers d’ eau douce,
et sur la régénération des pattes de l’ écrevisse.
essai d’ explication de ces faits.
j’ ai parcouru tout ce qui concerne les réproductions
végétales de différents genres ; j’ ai
tiré des faits les conséquences naturelles qui
pouvoient me conduire à une explication satisfaisante
de ces réproductions : je vais maintenant
considérer dans la même vue, tout ce qui concerne
les réproductions animales , et m’ aider des
faits que nous offrent les végétaux, pour essayer
de répandre quelque jour sur la régénération des
polypes et des autres insectes, qui peuvent être
greffés et multipliés de bouture etc.
des germes, principes des corps organisés.
1 fondement de l’ existence des germes.
la philosophie ayant compris l’ impossibilité où elle
étoit d’ expliquer méchaniquement la formation des
êtres organisés, a imaginé heureusement qu’ ils
existoient déja en petit, sous la forme de germes ,
ou de corpuscules organiques . Et cette idée a
produit deux hypothèses qui plaisent beaucoup à la
2 deux hypothèses sur les germes.
la premiere suppose, que les germes de tous les corps
organisés d’ une même espèce, étoient renfermés, les
uns dans les autres, et se sont développés
La seconde hypothèse répand ces germes partout, et
suppose qu’ ils ne parviennent à se développer, que
lorsqu’ ils rencontrent des matrices convenables,
ou des corps de même espèce, disposés à les retenir,
à les fomenter et à les faire croître.
J’ adopterai dans cet ouvrage, la division
décimale de l’ angle droit et du jour : je rapporterai
les mesures linéaires, à la longueur du
mètre, déterminée par l’ arc du méridien terrestre,
compris entre dunkerque et barcelone ; et les
températures, au thermomètre à mercure, divisé
en cent degrés, depuis la température de la glace
fondante, jusqu’ à celle de l’ eau bouillante sous
une pression équivalente au poids d’ une colonne
de mercure, de soixante et seize centimètres de
The history of labor laws and strikes has this in common to both — laws become dead
letters; the victories of strikes are nibbled away. Too much was expected even of those
preparatory labor laws, universal suffrage and universal education. Amateur faith in laws
and strikes weakens with experience. A law creates an abstract right — an empty ideal. A
strike may be a burst of enthusiasm, then disorganization. Some philosophizers fall back
on the individual’s moral character. Little, they think, can be done by law or unions.
There are others who inquire how to draft and enforce the laws, how to keep the winnings
of strikes — in short, how to connect ideals with efficiency
Positive laws ought to be consequent of the laws of nature: this is the spirit of laws.
Montesquieu’s Spirit of Laws.
Laws are not, as Montesquieu has asserted, “necessary relations originating in the nature of things.” A law is not a relation, nor is a relation a law: the definition is not clear nor satisfactory. The word law has its special and appropriate sense: this sense is always to be found in the original meaning of words, and to which recourse must be had in order to their being rightly understood. Here law means a rule of action, prescribed by an authority invested with competent power and a right so to do: this last condition is essential, and when it is not possessed, the rule is no longer a law, but an arbitrary command, an act of violence and usurpation.
A reflexão sobre a temática das relações internacionais está presente desde
os pensadores da Antigüidade grega, como é o caso de Tucídides.
Igualmente, obras como a Utopia, de Thomas More, e os escritos de
Maquiavel, Hobbes e Montesquieu requerem, para sua melhor compreensão,
uma leitura sob a ótica mais ampla das relações entre Estados e povos.
No mundo moderno, como é sabido, a disciplina Relações Internacionais
surgiu após a Primeira Guerra Mundial e, desde então, experimentou
notável desenvolvimento, transformando-se em matéria indispensável para
o entendimento do cenário atual. Assim sendo, as relações internacionais
constituem área essencial do conhecimento que é, ao mesmo tempo,
antiga, moderna e contemporânea.
To What Extent Forms of Government are a Matter of Choice.
All speculations concerning forms of government bear the impress, more
or less exclusive, of two conflicting theories respecting political
institutions; or, to speak more properly, conflicting conceptions of
what political institutions are.
By some minds, government is conceived as strictly a practical art,
giving rise to no questions but those of means and an end. Forms of
government are assimilated to any other expedients for the attainment
of human objects. They are regarded as wholly an affair of invention
and contrivance. Being made by man, it is assumed that man has the
choice either to make them or not, and how or on what pattern they
shall be made. Government, according to this conception, is a problem,
to be worked like any other question of business. The first step is to
define the purposes which governments are required to promote. The
next, is to inquire what form of government is best fitted to fulfill
Preface to the fifth edition.
Daily and weekly, from all parts of the world, I receive publications
bearing upon the practical applications of electricity. This great
movement, the ultimate outcome of which is not to be foreseen, had
its origin in the discoveries made by Michael Faraday, sixty-two
years ago. From these discoveries have sprung applications of the
telephone order, together with various forms of the electric
telegraph. From them have sprung the extraordinary advances made in
electrical illumination. Faraday could have had but an imperfect
notion of the expansions of which his discoveries were capable.
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
Actus primus, Scena prima.
Valentine: Protheus, and Speed.
Valentine. Cease to perswade, my louing Protheus;
Home-keeping youth, haue euer homely wits,
Wer’t not affection chaines thy tender dayes
To the sweet glaunces of thy honour’d Loue,
I rather would entreat thy company,
To see the wonders of the world abroad,
Then (liuing dully sluggardiz’d at home)
Weare out thy youth with shapelesse idlenesse.
But since thou lou’st; loue still, and thriue therein,
Euen as I would, when I to loue begin
THE TURN OF THE SCREW
The story had held us, round the fire, sufficiently breathless,
but except the obvious remark that it was gruesome, as, on Christmas
Eve in an old house, a strange tale should essentially be,
I remember no comment uttered till somebody happened to say that it
was the only case he had met in which such a visitation had fallen
on a child. The case, I may mention, was that of an apparition
in just such an old house as had gathered us for the occasion–
an appearance, of a dreadful kind, to a little boy sleeping
in the room with his mother and waking her up in the terror of it;
waking her not to dissipate his dread and soothe him to sleep again,
but to encounter also, herself, before she had succeeded in doing so,
the same sight that had shaken him. It was this observation
that drew from Douglas–not immediately, but later in the evening–
a reply that had the interesting consequence to which I call attention.
Someone else told a story not particularly effective, which I saw
he was not following. This I took for a sign that he had himself
something to produce and that we should only have to wait.
We waited in fact till two nights later; but that same evening,
before we scattered, he brought out what was in his mind.