O direito das gentes / Emer de Vattel

A reflexão sobre a temática das relações internacionais está presente desde
os pensadores da Antigüidade grega, como é o caso de Tucídides.
Igualmente, obras como a Utopia, de Thomas More, e os escritos de
Maquiavel, Hobbes e Montesquieu requerem, para sua melhor compreensão,
uma leitura sob a ótica mais ampla das relações entre Estados e povos.
No mundo moderno, como é sabido, a disciplina Relações Internacionais
surgiu após a Primeira Guerra Mundial e, desde então, experimentou
notável desenvolvimento, transformando-se em matéria indispensável para
o entendimento do cenário atual. Assim sendo, as relações internacionais
constituem área essencial do conhecimento que é, ao mesmo tempo,
antiga, moderna e contemporânea.

Considerations on Representative Government / John Stuart Mill

Chapter I
To What Extent Forms of Government are a Matter of Choice.
All speculations concerning forms of government bear the impress, more
or less exclusive, of two conflicting theories respecting political
institutions; or, to speak more properly, conflicting conceptions of
what political institutions are.
By some minds, government is conceived as strictly a practical art,
giving rise to no questions but those of means and an end. Forms of
government are assimilated to any other expedients for the attainment
of human objects. They are regarded as wholly an affair of invention
and contrivance. Being made by man, it is assumed that man has the
choice either to make them or not, and how or on what pattern they
shall be made. Government, according to this conception, is a problem,
to be worked like any other question of business. The first step is to
define the purposes which governments are required to promote. The
next, is to inquire what form of government is best fitted to fulfill
those purposes.

Faraday As A Discoverer / John Tyndall

Preface to the fifth edition.
Daily and weekly, from all parts of the world, I receive publications
bearing upon the practical applications of electricity. This great
movement, the ultimate outcome of which is not to be foreseen, had
its origin in the discoveries made by Michael Faraday, sixty-two
years ago. From these discoveries have sprung applications of the
telephone order, together with various forms of the electric
telegraph. From them have sprung the extraordinary advances made in
electrical illumination. Faraday could have had but an imperfect
notion of the expansions of which his discoveries were capable.

The Two Gentlemen of Verona / William Shakespeare

The Two Gentlemen of Verona
Actus primus, Scena prima.
Valentine: Protheus, and Speed.
Valentine. Cease to perswade, my louing Protheus;
Home-keeping youth, haue euer homely wits,
Wer’t not affection chaines thy tender dayes
To the sweet glaunces of thy honour’d Loue,
I rather would entreat thy company,
To see the wonders of the world abroad,
Then (liuing dully sluggardiz’d at home)
Weare out thy youth with shapelesse idlenesse.
But since thou lou’st; loue still, and thriue therein,
Euen as I would, when I to loue begin

The Turn of the Screw / Henry James

THE TURN OF THE SCREW
The story had held us, round the fire, sufficiently breathless,
but except the obvious remark that it was gruesome, as, on Christmas
Eve in an old house, a strange tale should essentially be,
I remember no comment uttered till somebody happened to say that it
was the only case he had met in which such a visitation had fallen
on a child. The case, I may mention, was that of an apparition
in just such an old house as had gathered us for the occasion–
an appearance, of a dreadful kind, to a little boy sleeping
in the room with his mother and waking her up in the terror of it;
waking her not to dissipate his dread and soothe him to sleep again,
but to encounter also, herself, before she had succeeded in doing so,
the same sight that had shaken him. It was this observation
that drew from Douglas–not immediately, but later in the evening–
a reply that had the interesting consequence to which I call attention.
Someone else told a story not particularly effective, which I saw
he was not following. This I took for a sign that he had himself
something to produce and that we should only have to wait.
We waited in fact till two nights later; but that same evening,
before we scattered, he brought out what was in his mind.

Voyage à l’Ile de France / Bernardin de Saint-Pierre

Ces lettres et ces journaux ont été écrits à mes
amis. à mon retour, je les ai mis en ordre et je
les ai fait imprimer, afin de leur donner une
marque publique d’ amitié et de reconnaissance.
Aucun de ceux qui m’ ont rendu quelque service dans
mon voyage n’ y a été oublié. Voilà quel a été mon
premier motif.
Voici le plan que j’ ai suivi. Je commence par les
plantes et les animaux naturels à chaque pays. J’ en
décris le climat et le sol tel qu’ il était sortant
des mains de la nature. Un paysage est le fond du
tableau de la vie humaine.

A Bela Madame Vargas / João do Rio

O esplêndido terraço da vila de Mme. Vargas. Á direita, avançando sobre o terraço
entre grinaldas de rosas e trepadeiras floridas, a fachada da linda casa, com varanda e
escadaria. Para essa varanda dão a larga janela e a porta do salão de música. No fundo
balaustrada de mármore. Do terraço domina-se um maravilhoso panorama de florestas,
deslizando para a baía em baixo, ao fundo. Em baixo os jardins do palacete.
Entretanto, são cinco horas de um dia de inverno e há nesse terraço um chá ao ar livre.
As pequenas mesas já estão dispostas, com gosto e com muitas flores. Os criados dão os
últimos cuidados a organização geral. Ouve-se no salão de música risos, e pedaços de
uma cançoneta parisiense. Quando abre o pano estão em cena de casaca, a arrumar as
mesas Antônio e Braz.

Utopia / Thomas More

Sir Thomas More, son of Sir John More, a justice of the King’s Bench, was
born in 1478, in Milk Street, in the city of London. After his earlier
education at St. Anthony’s School, in Threadneedle Street, he was placed,
as a boy, in the household of Cardinal John Morton, Archbishop of
Canterbury and Lord Chancellor. It was not unusual for persons of wealth
or influence and sons of good families to be so established together in a
relation of patron and client. The youth wore his patron’s livery, and
added to his state

Candide ou l’optimisme / François-Marie Arouet (Voltaire)

COMMENT CANDIDE FUT ÉLEVÉ DANS UN BEAU CHÂTEAU, ET
COMMENT IL FUT CHASSÉ D’ICELUI
Il y avait en Westphalie, dans le château de M. le baron de
Thunder−ten−tronckh, un jeune garçon à qui la nature avait donné les
moeurs les plus douces. Sa physionomie annonçait son âme. Il avait le
jugement assez droit, avec l’esprit le plus simple ; c’est, je crois, pour cette
raison qu’on le nommait Candide. Les anciens domestiques de la maison
soupçonnaient qu’il était fils de la soeur de monsieur le baron et d’un bon et
honnête gentilhomme du voisinage, que cette demoiselle ne voulut jamais
épouser parce qu’il n’avait pu prouver que soixante et onze quartiers, et que
le reste de son arbre généalogique avait été perdu par l’injure du temps.

Así Habló Zaratustra / Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (Spanish version)

Cuando Zaratustra tenía treinta años2
abandonó su patria y el lago de su patria y marchó
a las montañas. Allí gozó de su espíritu y de su soledad y durante diez años no se cansó
de hacerlo. Pero al fin su corazón se transformó, – y una mañana, levantándose con la
aurora, se colocó delante del sol y le habló así:
«¡Tú gran astro! ¡Qué sería de tu felicidad si no tuvieras a aquellos a quienes iluminas!3
.
Durante diez años has venido subiendo hasta mi caverna: sin mí, mi águila y mi serpiente4
te habrías hartado de tu luz y de este camino.
Pero nosotros te aguardábamos cada mañana, te liberábamos de tu sobreabundancia y te
bendecíamos por ello. ¡Mira! Estoy hastiado de mi sabiduría como la abeja que ha recogido
demasiada miel, tengo necesidad de manos que se extiendan.
Me gustaría regalar y repartir hasta que los sabios entre los hombres hayan vuelto a regocijarse
con su locura, y los pobres, con su riqueza.
Para ello tengo que bajar a la profundidad: como haces tú al atardecer, cuando traspones
el mar llevando luz incluso al submundo, ¡astro inmensamente rico!
Yo, lo mismo que tú, tengo que hundirme en mi ocaso5
, como dicen los hombres a
quienes quiero bajar. ¡Bendíceme, pues, ojo tranquilo, capaz de mirar sin envidia incluso
una felicidad demasiado grande!

Alves & Cia. / José Maria Eça de Queirós

Nessa manhã, Godofredo da Conceição Alves, encalmado, soprando de Ter vindo do Terreiro do Paço quase a
correr, abria o batente de baetão verde, do seu escritório num entressolo da rua dos Douradores, quando o relógio de parede pôr
cima da carteira do guarda-livros batia duas horas, naquele tom, cavo, a que os tetos baixos do entressolo davam uma
sonoridade dolente, e cava. Godofredo parou, verificou o seu próprio relógio preso pôr uma corrente de cabelo sobre o colete
branco, e não conteve um gesto de irritação vendo a sua manhã assim perdida, pelas repartições do Ministério da Marinha: e era
sempre assim quando o seu negócio de comissões para o Ultramar o levava lá: apesar de Ter um primo de sua mulher, diretorgeral,
de escorregar de vez em quando uma placa na mão dos contínuos, de ter descontado a dois segundos oficiais letras de
favor, eram sempre as mesmas dormentes esperas pelo ministro, um folhear eterno de papelada, hesitações, demoras, todo um
trabalho irregular, rangente e desconjuntado de velha máquina meio desparafusada.