Democracy and Education / John Dewey

Chapter One: Education as a Necessity of Life
1. Renewal of Life by Transmission. The most notable
distinction between living and inanimate things is that the
former maintain themselves by renewal. A stone when struck
resists. If its resistance is greater than the force of the blow
struck, it remains outwardly unchanged. Otherwise, it is
shattered into smaller bits. Never does the stone attempt to
react in such a way that it may maintain itself against the blow,
much less so as to render the blow a contributing factor to its
own continued action. While the living thing may easily be
crushed by superior force, it none the less tries to turn the
energies which act upon it into means of its own further
existence. If it cannot do so, it does not just split into
smaller pieces (at least in the higher forms of life), but loses
its identity as a living thing.

20,000 Leagues Under the Seas – An Underwater Tour of the World / Julio Verne

Introduction
“The deepest parts of the ocean are totally unknown to us,”
admits Professor Aronnax early in this novel. “What goes on in
those distant depths? What creatures inhabit, or could inhabit,
those regions twelve or fifteen miles beneath the surface of the water?
It’s almost beyond conjecture.”
Jules Verne (1828-1905) published the French equivalents of these words
in 1869, and little has changed since. 126 years later, a Time
cover story on deep-sea exploration made much the same admission:
“We know more about Mars than we know about the oceans.”
This reality begins to explain the dark power and otherworldly
fascination of Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Seas.

Aesop’s Fables / Esopo

The Cock and the Pearl
A cock was once strutting up and down the farmyard
among the hens when suddenly he espied something
shinning amid the straw. ‘Ho! ho!’ quoth he, ‘that’s for
me,’ and soon rooted it out from beneath the straw. What
did it turn out to be but a Pearl that by some chance had
been lost in the yard? ‘You may be a treasure,’ quoth
Master Cock, ‘to men that prize you, but for me I would
rather have a single barley-corn than a peck of pearls.’
Precious things are for those that can prize them.

Walking / Henry David Thoreau

Walking
by Henry David Thoreau
I wish to speak a word for Nature, for absolute freedom and
wildness, as contrasted with a freedom and culture merely
civil–to regard man as an inhabitant, or a part and parcel of
Nature, rather than a member of society. I wish to make an
extreme statement, if so I may make an emphatic one, for there
are enough champions of civilization: the minister and the school
committee and every one of you will take care of that.

Youth / Joseph Conrad

YOUTH: A NARRATIVE
YOUTH
THIS could have occurred nowhere but in England, where men and sea
interpenetrate, so to speak–the sea entering into the life of most
men, and the men knowing something or everything about the sea, in the
way of amusement, of travel, or of bread-winning.
We were sitting round a mahogany table that reflected the bottle, the
claret-glasses, and our faces as we leaned on our elbows.

A Book of Remarkable Criminals / Henry B. Irving

A BOOK OF
REMARKABLE CRIMINALS
Introduction
“The silent workings, and still more the explosions, of human
passion which bring to light the darker elements of man’s nature
present to the philosophical observer considerations of intrinsic
interest; while to the jurist, the study of human nature and
human character with its infinite varieties, especially as
affecting the connection between motive and action, between
irregular desire or evil disposition and crime itself, is equally
indispensable and difficult.”–_Wills on Circumstantial
Evidence_.

Synthèse Chimique / Marcellin Berthelot

Exposition historique des progrès de la chimie organique. Les
éléments et les principes immédiats. I rechercher les éléments
des corps, et tâcher de les résoudre par l’ analyse en des êtres
plus simples, c’ est là une question qui s’ est présentée dès l’
antiquité à l’ esprit humain. Mais les philosophes ont tout d’
abord identifié cette analyse avec l’ idée d’ une simple division
mécanique, propre à fournir des éléments toujours visibles et
sensibles, quoique de plus en plus atténués. Les opinions de l’
antiquité relativement aux atomes et à l’ homéomérie se
rapportent à ce genre de conceptions. L’ homéomérie envisage tous
les corps comme formés de petits éléments semblables à l’
ensemble ; l’ or, par exemple, est composé par des parcelles d’
or, et chaque organe résulte d’ une infinité de petits organes
semblables : /… /.

Carta a Augusto Bebel / Friedrich Engels

Londres, 18-28 de Março de 1875
Meu caro Bebel:
Recebi a sua carta de 23 de Fevereiro, e alegra-me que o seu estado de saúde seja tão satisfatório.
Você pergunta-me o que é que nós pensamos sobre essa história da unificação. Infelizmente, passou-se
connosco o mesmo que consigo. Nem Liebknecht nem ninguém nos deu qualquer notícia, pelo que nós
apenas sabemos aquilo que dizem os jornais, que não trouxeram nada, até que, há uns oito dias,
publicaram o projecto do programa. Imagine o espanto que esse projecto nos causou!

Traité de la Résolution des Équations Numériques de tous les Degrés / Joseph Louis Lagrange

La solution de tout problème déterminé se réduit, en dernière
analyse, à la résolution d’ une ou de plusieurs équations, dont
les coefficiens sont donnés en nombres, et qu’ on peut appeler
équations numériques . Il est donc important d’ avoir des
méthodes pour résoudre complètement ces équations, de quelque
degré qu’ elles soient. Celle que l’ on trouve dans le recueil
des mémoires de l’ académie de Berlin pour l’ année 1767, est
la seule qui offre des moyens directs et sûrs de découvrir toutes
les racines tant réelles qu’ imaginaires d’ une équation
numérique donnée, et d’ approcher le plus rapidement et aussi
près que l’ on veut de chacune de ces racines.